COMPREHENSIVE KAMPUNG IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM
This paper is originally written in 1999 and submitted to ICLEI in Ottawa for application of Local Initatives Awards. On behalf of City of Surabaya Togar A. Silaban submited this paper to compete with other cities in the world. Unfortunately, Surabaya did not make to obtain the world class awards.
COMPREHENSIVE KAMPUNG IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM
An integrated approach to improve community in slum areas In Surabaya
Bappeda = Local Planning Development Board, responsible for planning, programming and budgeting.
Bappenas = Indonesian Natiocal Planning Development Board.
BPN = National Land Agency
C-KIP = Comprehensive Kampung Improvement Program
CDC = Community Development Consultant, consultant or NGO who assist community in planning and implementing of C-KIP.
Kampung = A neighborhood community unit in the city with traditional characters.
KIP = Kampung Improvement Program
KMS = (Kotamadya Surabaya) Municipality of Surabaya
KSM = “Kelompok Swadaya Masyarakat”, a self-help neighborhood unit consists of 10 – 15 households
KSU = Business Cooperative Unit
MCK = “Mandi-Cuci-Kakus”, a public sanitary facility consists of bath and toilet.
NGO = Non-Government Organization
PBB = Land and Property Tax
PDAM = Water Supply Enterprise, a semi-autonomous company owned by the local government.
Pimpro = Project Manager
PIU = Project Implementation Unit
Rp. = Indonesian currency unit (Rupiah).
SUDP = Surabaya Urban Development Project,
UMU = Urban Management Unit
Indonesia is an equatorial archipelago of more than 13,000 islands, including five major islands of Sumatera, Kalimantan, Java, Sulawesi and Irian Jaya. It is strategically situated between Asia and Australia, and between the Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean. Population of Indonesia is about 200 million (1995), 60% of which live in Java, at an average density of over 800 people per square kilometer. The urban population is about 35% of the total i.e. 70 million.
The country is divided into 27 provinces and 303 regencies and municipalities. East-Java province has an area of 47,921 sq kilometers, a total population of about 31 million and urban population is 9,5 million (1995). The important economic sectors in East Java are agriculture, industry and fisheries. The capital of East Java is Surabaya with a population of about 3 million (1995). Surabaya is the gateway to East Indonesia and has a major role for industry, business, maritime activities and education.
Surabaya is the second largest city in Indonesian and is the capital of East Java Province. Surabaya is also a major center for commercial, industrial and administration. Surabaya is the gravitation center of a regional urban system formed by regencies of Gresik, Bangkalan, Mojokerto, Surabaya, Sidoarjo, and Lamongan. The region, with population exceeding 8 million, has been decided as a natural nuclear driving system for the development of East Indonesia. The population of this metropolitan system is expected to be 10 million by the year 2000.
Originally a kampung is a village in which community has a traditional neighborhood system to manage interactions amongst the community members. Kampungs in Surabaya grow through a transformation of rural villages in to urban villages with minimum facilities, infrastructures and service. Kampungs in a big city transform from traditional characters to metropolitan characters. As Surabaya grows into a metropolitan city, the condition of the kampungs relatively unchanged. The traditional and informal growing process of kampungs, particularly of housing areas, brings to an unplanned and unstructured housing areas. Since almost 85% of housing in Surabaya constructed by individuals without an appropriate city planning, the housing areas grow uncontrolled; and the most uncontrolled areas are kampungs. Generally, there is no site plan, no building permits and land certificate in the kampungs.
Uncontrolled growing of kampungs becomes slum areas in the city, infrastructures are inappropriate. Density of the population is very high. In some areas, the inhabitants exceed 1,000 person per hectare. The condition of the areas with a very high density is very fragile for a good quality of life. Public facilities are inadequate, footpath is very small, water supply is very limited, solid waste is not well managed, and drainage system is not sufficient to supply the demand of the community. In many cases, the drainage is full of rubbish and sediment. Generally, the condition of the kampungs is deteriorating; development action is needed to avoid worse condition. The government and the community are responsible to improve the living environment in the kampungs.
Kampung Improvement Program (KIP) is a program introduced by local government of Surabaya to improve infrastructures, and quality of community settlement. The program provides infrastructures such as footpath, micro drainage, solid waste, public toilet. The program influences almost all aspects of the community particularly the low-income people who live in kampungs. Implementation of KIP in Surabaya started in 1968. About 20 years experience in implementing the KIP in Surabaya, it is noted that the program will not be successful without supports from the people and their participation to improve their own living environment. The people participation is expressed in activities in planning and implementation process, and monitoring the progress of the program. The active participation of the community will improve sense of belonging of the community to keep their own living environment clean, and healthy.
To improve the service to community, Local Government of Surabaya introduces a new approach called Comprehensive Kampung Improvement Program (C-KIP). The component of C-KIP includes physical development, and non-physical development such as community development, land management, and home loan. Emphasize is given to the non-physical development in order to ensure a sustainability within the community. C-KIP is an approach to improve the living condition of community in kampungs. The approach encourages participation of the community in planning, implementation and monitoring process until the end of the program. Local Governments promotes a community based development approach so, an integrated partnership amongst Government, community, private sector, actively involve in the program. The important thing of the program is to improve role and participation of the community as subjects and an objects of development. The emphasize of the program is in improving non-physical development.
The objective of Comprehensive-KIP is to improve social and economic condition, environmental condition of the community in the slum areas by involving the community in planning, implementing and monitoring the program. Specific objectives of the program is:
a. Improving role of the community in the development process
b. Improving the economic condition of the community.
c. Improving the infrastructures and quality of community settlements.
d. Promoting improvement of land ownership and building permits
05. Selection Criteria of the Area
Since there are many kampungs in Surabaya should be improved, for the first stage only 30 kampungs can be improved. Selection of the priority kampungs using the following criteria:
a. Infrastructure condition; road and drainage have been already improved through other program to a certain level, however, sanitation condition still needs further improvement; availability of water supply network within the area.
b. Physical building condition; condition of building structure is inappropriate in accordance to technical requirement.
c. Land management condition; land ownership and land-use planning.
d. Community participation; there is some potential of financial contribution from the community.
06. Program Component
Components of the C KIP are:
a. Community development program
b. Land management program
c. Home loan program
d. Physical development program
06.a. Community Development Program
Community development program supports social marketing of C-KIP in Surabaya particularly to the community who lives in kampung areas. The program is aimed to improve the participation of the community to develop and to maintain the kampung environment.
Community development program consists of 4 activities:
a. Public information
The activity provides information about C-KIP to the community through public campaign and meetings; provision of billboards, posters, and brochures.
b. Community development training.
The activity provides skills and practical knowledge for the community to manage their program.
The training for example:
• Management training for the kampung foundation members.
• Building permit procedure training
• Land certification procedure training
c. Environmental health training
The training provides information to the kampung community how to protect the environment from diseases and keeping the environment clean.
d. Small scale business training
The training provides skills for small scale business. Target groups are low-income families that have interest in establishing small scale business. The training provides skills and management in home industry, so they can manage their business and finally they can improve their income.
06.b. Land Management Program
The activity of land management program in C-KIP is to improve land ownership status and building permit status by providing land certificates and the building permits. The target areas of the program are kampungs with low income and minimum facilities and services. Scopes of work for this program are:
a. Preparation of kampung site plan
b. Land certification in kampungs
c. Building permits.
06.c. Home Loan Program
Home loan program provides a soft small credit to the community. Home loan program includes:
a. House improvement
b. Kitchen improvement
c. Toilet improvement
d. Water supply connection
e. Land management
To be able to obtain a home loan, community should be a member of KSM (self-help community group).
Procedures of the home loan program:
a. Submit a proposal which must be evaluated by the CDC prior to the submission; the proposal consists of:
• Sketch shows the location
• Work activities
• Material for the works
• Cost estimate
c. The proposal will be analyzed by the Project.
Credit ceiling for all components are Rp. 500.000, (US $ 750 equivalent) per household, except for water connection the credit ceiling is Rp. 350.000, (US $ 540 equivalent) per household.
06.d. Physical Development Program
The physical development program has many components:
a. Footpath to connect community houses to the public facilities or to the main street.
b. Micro drainage to connect kampung area drainage to the tertiary drainage.
c. Solid waste provides infrastructures such as bins, hand carts for collection system.
d. Public toilets provide service for bath and toilet to the kampung community.
07. Implementation Organization
The organization structure of Comprehensive KIP consists of 3 levels:
a. Decision making level to monitor and to coordinate with other the programs.
b. Managerial level manages technical aspects and administrative aspects.
c. Operational level consists of 3 agencies :
• Project staff.
• Community Development Consultant (CDC) as a facilitator to the community, in setting-up community organizations and assisting the community in implementation.
• Community institutions such as Yayasan Kampung, YK (Kampung Foundation) and KSM (community self-help group) and their apparatus.
08. Community Development Consultant
To assist the community, a community development consultant (CDC) is appointed in implementing the program. The role of the CDC is to be a facilitator and a motivator so the community can prepare, implement and maintain the program.
The scope of work of the Community Development Consultant is as follows:
a. To conduct social marketing activities for the C-KIP program in the kampungs.
b. To carry out consultations and discussions to non-formal leaders for establishment of Yayasan Kampung (Kampung Foundation).
c. To assist the community in establishing community institutions, such as Yayasan Kampung (Kampung Foundation) and Kelompok Swadaya Masyarakat, KSM (community self-help groups).
d. To assist community in identifying demand in order to prepare the component of the program.
e. To assist the community in the overall implementation of the program.
f. To assist the community in disbursement process.
g. To prepare handing-over the program from the local government to the community.
09. Implementation Process
Since the target of C-KIP is community in low-income areas, the community needs assistant to manage the program in the phases of:
Assistant in the preparation phase by preparing budget and providing of manuals for implementation. The manuals are prepared for all components as mentioned in para (06).
The manuals explain:
• process and steps of activities
• administrative requirement
Activities in this phase consists of:
• Establishment of Community Development Consultant (CDC) including selection and training for the CDC personnel. To ensure that the community can develop and perpare their program in accordance to a certain managementt level, a CDC team, selected from Non-Government Organization (NGO), is needed. The role of CDC is a facilitator to the community as mentioned in para (08)
• Social marketing to the community. The activities consist of discussions and consultations with the community arranged by the CDC. At the early stage, the discussions carried out with non-formal leaders, and religious leaders. Based on the discussions several individuals can be identified to be members of community institutions that will be established. Then, through community meetings candidates for the members of the community institutions are selected.
• Establishment of community organizations including provision training for the member of community organizations. During the social marketing, community institutions will be established such as kampung foundation, community cooperation unit, community self-help groups. As the community institutions established with board members, the members will be trained how to use the manuals of the program.
Activities in this phase are executions of all program components (as mentioned in para ) within the community. The activities at these phases are:
• Self-survey by the community to determine community demand. Based on the survey, the community self-help groups prepare a proposal consists of activities to be financed in a grant scheme and in a credit scheme;
• Appraisal by the community foundation to analyze the community proposal. As the proposal appraised it is submitted to the Project Manager for signing a Memorandum of Agreement (MOA). Based on the MOA, the community and the Project Manager submit a request for payment to the National Treasury.
• Disbursement of the fund is released by the National Treasury into the community foundation account. As the community foundation receives the money, it is distributed to the community self-help group member in terms of credit scheme for one year or two years period. Budget for grant (physical improvement) is executed by the community foundation.
• Execution of the activities. Each member executes its activities in accordance to the signed MOA.
• Repayment by the community for revolving process. Two months after each member receives the money, the community member repays the credit to the community foundation through the community cooperation unit.
During the implementation, assistance from CDC and from the Project staff is provided to the community in managing the execution of the project.
10. Monitoring System
There are two monitoring systems to look after the progress and to identify problems of implementation.
a. Monitoring within the community; each member of the community is responsible for monitoring the program. Mechanism for the monitoring is by reporting progress and problems to the chairman of the Yayasan Kampung. Then, through a community meeting, any problem in the implementation will be resolved.
b. Monitoring by the Project
The involvement of the Project (Agency from the Municipality of Surabaya) in the early stage as initiator is also in monitoring the implementation of the program. The Project monitors to ensure that the implementation is on the right track.
In addition monitoring by the Project is also a tool to meet requirement by the government since the initial capital for the program is from the government. The government has a certain mechanism in monitoring a program in accordance to government rules.
11. Results Achieved
Response of the community is very positive for the implementation of the program. The involvement of the community in activities during preparation and implementation. The community involves on a voluntary basis in meetings and discussions during preparation. Most of the community work during the day, therefore, community meetings and discussions are carried out in the evening. In the implementation phase, the involvement of the community particularly the board members of Kampung Foundation is very good. Most of the time they work until almost midnight particularly during disbursement activities. Perhaps the most significant result of the C-KIP program is the involvement of the community in carrying out the program.
As the phase-1 program is implemented in 15 locations, then, there are 15 Kampung Foundations established. There are 502 personnel involved as kampung foundation board members, and cooperation units; and about 1,280 person as members of self-help community group. Total people involved on a voluntary basis in the 15 locations are 1,782 person on a voluntary basis.
Budget for initial stage in 15 locations is about Rp. 3.000.000.000 or about US$ 400,000 equivalent. So for each location (kampung) is about US$ 26,600. The amount of money is distributed to the community depend on the activities contained in the MOA. All of the money is provided as a grant to the community. Part of the budget (approximately from 50% to 70%, depending on the magnitude of the program) is provided to the community in terms of “revolving fund” within the community. So, individual who use the money has to repay the money to the community through a credit scheme for one or two years period. About 30% to 50% of the money is provided in terms of non-revolving fund (pure grant) without any repayment from the individuals to the community. Result of the repayment shows that the community is very eager to repay the money.
According to BAPPENAS, Indonesian National Development Planning Board, C-KIP is good enough, and it is adopted to be used as references to a similar program in the national level such as Urban Poverty Alleviation Program. BAPPENAS argues that C-KIP has a comparative advantage because the preparation and the implementation of the program are carried out by the community. Therefore, C-KIP should be considered as a model of community development, and may be expected to be adopted nationally. According to Bappenas, it is undoubtedly that development programs such as the C-KIP could become a basic model to the community development in the near future in Indonesia. The program is in line with the change in the existing development paradigm, from the production center development to a people center development.
12. Constraints and Problems
There are some major constraints and problems found during the implementation of the program such as:
a. Coordination amongst agencies; although a working group consists of related agencies has been established to assist the implementation of the program, coordination of the agencies is not sufficient as mentioned in the job description of the working group.
b. Understanding of the community; it takes a very long period to bring along a sufficient understanding of the community so, the community can understand the purposes of the program. Although a community development consultant works together with the community, the process of achieving of understanding is a very time consuming.
c. Lack of human resources; perhaps this problem happens in all components (stakeholders) of the C-KIP. The quality and capacity of human resources involved in the program varies from a very basic condition to very high quality. In some cases the implementation of the program interpreted in a very narrow understanding, so, the implementation goes far from its original scope.
13. Lessons Learned
The most important points can be learned from the program is that each community unit is unique. Each community unit has a certain characteristic, which is different with other community units in Surabaya. General approach to promote any activity may not be suitable for each community unit particularly in slum areas in Surabaya. Therefore, a careful analysis for each community unit is important to ensure that the community will involve in development programs. The analysis for each community unit is important to ensure that the program will be sustain within the community.
Project approach oriented may not be suitable for improvement of community. By nature project approach has limitations in dealing with community problems. Project approach has a fixed time schedule and almost fixed targets. Whether community is an open environment in which time is very flexible and targets can be changed frequently. To ensure sustainability within the community, a community based development approach may the most appropriate mechanism to be applied. It should be realized that community based approach is very flexible in time and targets.
During the implementation of the program, out of 15 locations, a couple of locations have difficulties in implementing the program due to insufficient understanding among the community. It is found in location (kampung) that there are number of people which is a pressure group in such area. The pressure group has its interest and influences the opinion of the community to stir the program into the interest of the pressure group. Fortunately, there are informal leaders who are respected by the community in such area. The informal leaders can persuade the pressure group to be involved in a positive way in the program. Generally, the informal leaders are religious leaders who have
14. Reports and Publication
To support the implementation of the program various reports and publications are prepared. For monitoring purposes, periodical reports such as monthly and quarterly reports are published to control the progress of the program. In addition, technical reports are also produced such as manual reports, and design reports.
For public information purposes, number of publication such as brochures, leaflets, and posters. Most of the reports and brochures are in Indonesian Language, for a particular purposes, some of the reports published in English.